Castle of Bragança
The Castle of Bragança the citadel of the city, encavalitado over the river Fervença, is one of the most notable Portuguese castles much due to its very remarkable Tower of Homage. Thus one can see the mountains Montesinho and Sanabria (the north), to Rebordões (northeast) and the Nogueira (west), and the dilapidated historic quarter of Bragança.
The checkered history of the Castle of Bragança
It is known that the Castle of Bragança have been a castro Iron Age as evidenced by existence of the Bear totem pillory. After the Roman invasion of the Iberian Peninsula that defense would have been reformulated, dominating the Roman road that would have cut the region. When the barbarian invasions was named as Brigância and, later, occupied by Muslims, been devastated during the struggles of the Christian Reconquest of the peninsula.
In the mid-tenth century, at the time of repopulation of the region of Guimarães by Count Hermenegildo and his wife Mumadona Days, areas of Braganza had as lord, a brother Ermenegildo, Count Palo Gonçalves. Later, the landlord came into the possession of Fernão Mendes, coined D. Afonso Henriques (1112-1185).
The information, safest, however, report that, the importance of its strategic position on the streak with Galicia, in 1187 received a charter of D. Sancho I (1185-1211). This endowed sovereign, the time, the town with the first walled about constructing the castle of Bragança. Conflicts between this sovereign and the king D. Afonso IX Leão meant that this region was invaded by forces from Leon (1199) reaction to the Portuguese sovereign.
Under the reign of D. Dinis (1279-1325), determined to stand one second walled perimeter at the castle of Bragança (1293), which indicates the prosperity of the populated. His successor, D. Afonso IV (1325-1357), to the throne, confiscated the goods of his illegitimate brother, D. Afonso Sanches, who then resided in the village of Albuquerque. Defending their interests, D. Afonso Sanches declared war and invaded the sovereign border of Bragança for Portugal, killing people, goods looting and destroying properties. The peace was agreed, with difficulty, peel Viúva D. Dinis, a Rainha Santa Isabel.
Later, already under the reign of D. Fernando (1367-1383), received improvements to. At this stage, having been involved in this sovereign succession dispute of Castile, Braganza was besieged and conquered by Castilian troops, returning to the Portuguese possession only upon signature of the Treaty Alcoutim (1371). In crisis 1383-1385, open the succession of this sovereign, loyalty mayor of Bragança, John Pimentel, oscillated between Portugal and Castile: supporter of the heiress D. Beatriz and her husband John I of Castile, only representations of the Constable D
D. John proceeded, from 1409, modernization and strengthening of the defenses of the Castle of Bragança, works included in the larger task that was imposed, reinforcement that border. The Wedding D. Afonso (1° Count of Bragança), bastard son of D. João I, com D. Beatriz, daughter of D. Nuno Alvares Pereira, inaugurated the House of Braganza. Date of this period the construction of remarkable donjon (**), the works being completed around 1439, in the reign of his successor, D. Duarte (1433-1438). D. Afonso V (1438-1481) elevated the town of Bragança as a city (1466).
During the succession crisis 1580, Castle Bragança sided by D. Antonio, Prior of Crato. Not seventeenth century. In 1762, Spanish troops who invaded Trás-os-Montes under the command of the Duke of Sarria, stormed the castle walls and houses which then clung to the walls, causing extensive damage. Were repelled by the Portuguese forces under the command of Count of Lippe.
On the eve of Peninsular War, eastern portions of the walls of the castle of Bragança was tapped to build the aquertelamento of an infantry battalion. During this period the troops repelled napoleônicas, phase in the region coexisted with new waves of looting and pillaging.
The castle of Bragança was classified as National Monument in 1910.
From the decade of 1930. A Directorate General for National Buildings and Monuments (DGEMN) began her extensive involvement of consolidation and restoration, understood that the inclusion of battlements in the entire length of the wall, the demolition of nineteenth-century barracks and several buildings addorsed the walls, and the replacement of missing sections of walls and the recent reconstruction of the Port of Betrayal. From 1936, a historical military museum is housed in one of the floors of the Tower of Homage). The castle of Braganza is one of the most visited castles in the country.
The castle, oval plan, erected in quota 700 meters above quota, is constituted by a fence with a crenellated perimeter 660 meters, Fifteen enhanced by cubelos. The scarves walls, with an average thickness of two meters, involve the historic core of the city, occupying an area of about three hectares, and enclose it four spaces, guided by two highways, whose main street is the ancient Citadel. Inside the visitor can enjoy two notable buildings already described here.
- Municipalis Domus (unique example in the country of Romanesque civil architecture) (***)
-e o Pillory (*) Bear with the famous medieval age of metals to serve as support;
-And yet the Church of Santa Maria (or Our Lady of Sardão).
Nessa search, ripping three doors (two under the invocation of St. Anthony and Gate of the Sun, in Timor) and two wickets (a Door of Treason e o Postigo Pit King).
The main door of St. Anthony, in perfect arch, between two turrets, is defended by a barbacã, na what if located at Porta of Vila, in pointed arch. No inside, on the parade, is possible to observe the adaptations of access and platforms for artillery.
The remarkable Watchtower (**) Castle of Bragança
In the north sector of the castle of Bragança, where they raised their facilities Hunter Battalion No. 3, stands out Tower of Homage, square, with 17 meters long, rising to 34 meters, addorsed to the fence. Masonry shale and serpentinite (rare rock in the country but that abounds here), cunhais and in openings was used in the granite. Inside, where the calabouço e a tank, is divided into two floors, with rooms covered by abóbadas de aresta, reinforced by arches torais. Originally one bridge acedia drawbridge door on higher plane, now replaced by an external stairway, masonry addorsed the northern face of his breastplate. Na do Sul, half the height of the tower, is a stone with the coat of arms of the House of Avis. The mole is crowned by ameias with arrow slits cruzetadas, branches with boulders, four watchtowers cylindrical at the vertices, dominating, This on the face and face South, two windows Gothic maineladas. A fence, Enhanced seven cubelos (three Leste, three to the West and South) of circular, defendem the outside of the tower, delimiting a roughly rectangular space.
The Tower of the Princess or not it would be better to Tower Jealousy undue?
Although the northern side of the exterior fence, along one of the turrets, stands out the call of the Princess Tower, old Paco Alcaide. Residential building features (torre-alcáçova), with the first two interesting stories is legendary and the second was real.
This lenda levy-nos, the time of the old Braganções and regards daughter Alcaide-Mor, John Pimentel, coined the Rainha D. Leonor Teles. Account history Dona Brites, wife of Martim Afonso de Melo, pure and candid soul, de beleza peregrina, charmed and bewitched who saw. And for this reason, out tragically murdered by jealousy of her husband. This death deeply impressed the population, that knowing the kind chatelaine, painted and wove around so cruel event, a poetic and well-woven narrative. For all this, the sight of this tower, whose stones that have mosses overlying, where historical memories hover in fact can not fail to produce the deep emotion, in particular, when we contemplate the light of this dull and dreary nights when the breeze seems to whisper what was living inside these walls who both cried, suffered and loved!
It, also, Esteve encarcerada D. Leonor, wife of the fourth Duke of Bragança, D. Jaime, accused (wrong) of adultery by her own husband. Duke ended up murdering his wife, no Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa, to stabbing, in 1512.
In the southern sector, a protruding quadrangular plant is closed by calling Well del'Rei, sixteenth-century structure with the function of defense of a tank.
Briefing Note- This text on the castle of Bragança was slightly modified from Wikipedia because their data were correct and thus also spared time is in precious.